The Primary Effect

Reference List

Abramowitz, A; CANDIDATE  CHOICE BEFORE THE CONVENTION: The Democrats in 1984


Atkeson , Lonna Ray- Divisive primaries and general election outcomes: Another look at presidential campaigns

Born, Richard The Influence of House Primary Election Divisiveness on General Election Margins, 1962-76


Boyd, Richard W., The Effects of Primaries and Statewide Races on Voter Turnout


Dinitto, A., Smithers, W.; The Representatives of the Direct Primary: A Further Test of V.O. Key's Thesis


Djupe, Paul and Peterson, David; The impact of negative campaigning:  Evidence from the 1998 Senatorial Primaries

Frisbee, Tyler Emilie;  Dominguez, Nicholas B.; Winters, Richard F.;  Divided, we Fail. The impact of primary diviseness on gubernatorial elections


Greer, John G and Shere, Mark E.; Party Competition and the Prisoner's Dilemma: An Argument for the Direct Primary


Gurian, Paul Henri, Nathan A. Burroughs, Lonna Rae Atkeson, Damon Cann, and Audrey A. Haynes (In Review). Divisive State Primaries and Divisive National Primaries in U.S. Presidential Elections, 1948-2008. Political Research Quarterly


Gurian, P. , Atkeson, L. R., Burroughs, N. and Haynes, A. A. , 2002-08-28 "Divisive Primaries, National Party Unity and the Presidential Vote: an Explanatory Model of General Election Outcomes 1948-2000"


HERRNSON, PAUL  AND GIMPEL, JAMES G. District Conditions and Primary Divisiveness in Congressional Election

Kenney, Patrick; Rice, Tom, The relationship between divisive primaries and general election outcomes,

Kenney, Patrick and Rice, Tom; The Effect of Primary Divisiveness in Gubernatorial and Senatorial Elections

LAZARUS,  JEFFREY Unintended Consequences: Anticipation of General Election Outcomes and Primary Election Divisiveness

Lengle, James and Owen, Diane, Sonner, Molly; Divisive Nominating Mechanisms and Democratic Party Electoral Prospects

Marshall, T; Turnout and Representation: Caucuses Versus Primaries


Moore, D; Hofstetter, C.R.; The Representativenes of Primary Elections: Ohio, 1968

PIERESON, JAMES,  SMITH. TERRY Primary Divisiven.ess and General Election Success: A Re-examination

Scheve, K., Tomz, M.; Electoral Surprise and the Midterm Loss in US Congressional Elections


Stone, Walter; Prenomination Candidate Choice and General Election Behavior: Iowa Presidential Activists in 1980*



Real Clear Politics. (2010). President Obama Job Approval. [Chart illustration of polling data].

Silver, N. (2010). What Tuesday really meant. FiveThirtyEight: Politics Done Right.

Does Rand Paul's win signal a ‘Tea Party tidal wave?’ The Week. (2010).

Was Tuesday a ‘failure’ for Republicans? The Week. (2010).